Long-Term Potentiation LTP

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously. It is one of several phenomena underlying synaptic plasticity, the ability of chemical synapses to change their strength. As memories are thought to be encoded by modification of synaptic strength,LTP is widely considered one of the major cellular mechanisms that underlies learning and memory.

LTP shares many features with long-term memory, making it an attractive candidate for a cellular mechanism of learning. For example, LTP and long-term memory are triggered rapidly, each depends upon the synthesis of new proteins, each has properties of associativity, and each can last for many months. LTP may account for many types of learning, from the relatively simple classical conditioning present in all animals, to the more complex, higher-level cognition observed in humans.

At a cellular level, LTP enhances synaptic transmission. It improves the ability of two neurons, one presynaptic and the other postsynaptic, to communicate with one another across a synapse. The precise molecular mechanisms for this enhancement of transmission have not been fully established, in part because LTP is governed by multiple mechanisms that vary by species and brain region. In the most well understood form of LTP, enhanced communication is predominantly carried out by improving the postsynaptic cell's sensitivity to signals received from the presynaptic cell. These signals, in the form of neurotransmitter molecules, are received by neurotransmitter receptors present on the surface of the postsynaptic cell. LTP improves the postsynaptic cell's sensitivity to neurotransmitter in large part by increasing the activity of existing receptors and by increasing the number of receptors on the postsynaptic cell surface.

LTP was discovered in the rabbit hippocampus by Terje Lømo in 1966 and has remained a popular subject of research since. Many modern LTP studies seek to better understand its basic biology, while others aim to draw a causal link between LTP and behavioral learning. Still others try to develop methods, pharmacologic or otherwise, of enhancing LTP to improve learning and memory. LTP is also a subject of clinical research, for example, in the areas of Alzheimer's disease and addiction medicine.

Molecular Collapse of Evolution


Oxygen Transport

ParM and Plasmid Segregation

DNA segregation by ParM - ParM binds to DNA-binding proteins, called ParR (orange proteins) around which segments of genomic DNA are coiled. Sister plasmid segregation is achieved through bidirectional insertional polymerization of the ParM filaments.

Passenger Proteins

Phagocytosis Video

Precipitor - Affinity Magnetic High Throughput Immunopreciptor

Abnova's Precipitor™ system is automated magnetic bead platform for high throughput precipitation and purification of proteins. Combining 96 deep well plate with affinity conjugated magnetic beads, Precipitor™ easily handles 16 different assays simultaneously by transferring beads from one well to the next for mixing, binding, washing, and elution reactions via the robotic action of parallel magnetic rods. It simplifies the routine yet labor intensive process, and addresses the needs of rigorous proteomic screening and biomarker discovery applications such as immunoprecipitaton (IP, ChIP, RIP), recombinant protein purification, and protein-protein interaction. Precipitor™ delivers reproducible and consistent results by obviating the drawbacks of manual operation. Its integrated onscreen display allows easy change of parameters tailored to your experiment. Moreover, you can select from large scope of available antibodies reagents to accelerate your research!

Photon - 96 well Chemiluminescence Reader

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Radiation of DNA and Response of Different Cells to Radiation.

Rap5 protein and endosome fusion under microscope

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RNAi Transfection Video

Role of Tubulins on Forming ER network

Signal Recognition Particle Video

Size Analogies of Bacteria and Viruses

Specific (Adaptive) Immunity Humoral and Cell Mediated

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Spire mechanism Video

Stem Cells Heart cells Grown from Mouse Stem Cells Video

Stereoclia and Hair cells

Stereocilia are apical modifications of the cell, which are distinct from cilia and microvilli, but closely related to the latter.Though their name is more similar to cilia, they are actually more closely related to microvilli, and some sources consider them to be a variant of microvilli rather than their own distinct type of structure. It is a long projection of cell membrane, similar in structure to microvillus

Mammalian Molecular Clock Model

 Molecular Clock is a technique in molecular evolution that uses fossil constraints and rates of molecular change to deduce the time in geologic history when two species or other taxa diverged. It is used to estimate the time of occurrence of events called speciation or radiation. The molecular data used for such calculations is usually nucleotide sequences for DNA or amino acid sequences for proteins. It is sometimes called a gene clock or evolutionary clock.

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Angiogenic Switch and VEGF