Neighbor-Joining Tree in phylogenetic analysis

In bioinformatics, neighbor joining is a bottom-up clustering method for the creation of phenetic trees (phenograms), created by Naruya Saitou and Masatoshi Nei. Usually used for trees based on DNA or protein sequence data, the algorithm requires knowledge of the distance between each pair of taxa (e.g., species or sequences) to form the tree  Neighbor joining takes as input a distance matrix specifying the distance between each pair of taxa. The algorithm starts with a completely unresolved tree, whose topology corresponds to that of a star network, and iterates over the following steps until the tree is completely resolved and all branch lengths are known: Based on the current distance matrix calculate the matrix Find the pair of taxa for which has its lowest value. Add a new node to the tree, joining these taxa to the rest of the tree. In the figure at right, f and g are joined to the tree by the new node u. Calculate the distance from each of the taxa in the pair to this new node. Calculate the distance from each of the taxa outside of this pair to the new node. Start the algorithm again, replacing the pair of joined neighbors with the new node and using the distances calculated in the previous step.