Glucocorticosteroid Mechansim of Action

Defintion

A class of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that enable the body to cope with stressors by increasing concentrations in the blood of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, and by raising blood pressure. Excessively high levels of glucocorticosteroids depress the immune system and inflammation response.(ref:Answers.com)


Mechanism Of Action:
Glucocorticosteroids directly act on nasal passage epithelial cells and on the T-lymphocytes mast cells and esoniphils of the immune system, these target cells have cell membranes composed of Glucocorticosteroid dissolving lipids, the Glucocorticosteroid routinely crosses into cell membrane and cell cytoplasm. Glucocorticosteroids bind to Glucocorticoid receptor to form Glucocorticosteroid receptor complex after entering the cytoplasm, these receptors are particularly common in nasal epithelial and blood vessels and though the are present in nearly all the cells. Glucocorticosteroid receptor complex formation has two effects to fight the effects of cytokines the new complex first binds to activated protein 1 (AP-1) this inhibits cell response to the chemical messages like inflammatory cytokines reducing inflammation, Glucocorticosteroid receptor formation also causes the complex to move to cell nucleus where it binds Glucocortiod response elements of GRE's which control protein production, this binding decreases the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and increases anti-inflammatory protein production.

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