What is Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium

The Gibbs–Donnan effect (also known as the Donnan effect, Donnan law, Donnan equilibrium, or Gibbs–Donnan equilibrium) is a name for the behavior of charged particles near a semi-permeable membrane to sometimes fail to distribute evenly across the two sides of the membrane. The usual cause is the presence of a different charged substance that is unable to pass through the membrane and thus creates an uneven electrical charge. For example, the large anionic proteins in blood plasma are not permeable to capillary walls. Because small cations are attracted, but are not bound to the proteins, small anions will cross capillary walls away from the anionic proteins more readily than small cations.

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