Apoptosis & Caspase 8 - PMAP

Caspases, or cysteine-aspartic acid proteases, are a family of cysteine proteases, which play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis and inflammation.
Caspases are essential in cells for apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death in development and most other stages of adult life, and have been termed "executioner" proteins for their roles in the cell. Some caspases are also required in the immune system for the maturation of cytokines. Failure of apoptosis is one of the main contributions to tumour development and autoimmune diseases; this coupled with the unwanted apoptosis that occurs with ischemia or Alzheimer's disease, has boomed the interest in caspases as potential therapeutic targets since they were discovered in the mid 1990s.

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Caspase 8 is a caspase protein. It most likely acts upon caspase 3.This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD. This protein was detected in the insoluble fraction of the affected brain region from Huntington disease patients but not in those from normal controls, which implicated the role in neurodegenerative diseases. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, although not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined.

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