Calvin Cycle Video


Definition Calvin cycle is a biochemical reaction takes place in Stroma of the chloroplasts in photosynthetic plants,it was discovered by Melvin Calvin,Bassham and Andrew Benson at the University of California, Berkeley.
Energy from light are stored has ATP and NADPH .in Calvin cycle this stored energy is used to make sugar molecule, the Calvin cycle is a complex theory of chemical reactions carried out in stroma.

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Process of Calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle begins with the input of CO2, three molecules are carbon dioxide added to three molecules of 5 carbon sugar abbreviated RUBP, this molecules are rearranged to become 6 molecules of 3-PGA which have 3 carbons each, note the molecules are not actually rearranged .in the next two reactions product from light reaction are used to boost energy of these 3 carbon moelcules.First high energy phosphate groups are added 6 ATP molecules contribute phosphate groups so each 3carbon molecule receives a additional phosphate group ,electrons are added in next reaction 6 molecules of NADPH are oxidized electron in NADPH reduce the 6 3 carbon compounds creating 6 high energy G3P molecule G3P is a sugar the final product of Calvin cycle ,one of G3p molecule represents the 3 carbon dioxide molecules fixed so far the other 5 G3P molecules are reshuffled to regenerate the original RUBP molecules .To summaries so far the Calvin cycle used the energy of the light reaction to reduce 3 molecules of carbon dioxide and produce 1 molecule of G3P , 3 more carbon-dioxide molecules are fixed to form G3P in the same complicated way ,to make each G3P the Calvin cycle consumes 9 ATP molecules and 6 NADPH molecules ,these are regenerated in Light reaction ,G3p is actual final product of the Calvin cycle the cell combine 2 G3Ps to make Glucose which stores the energy

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