Trypanosoma cruzi:Host cell infection and intracellular replication

Trypanosoma cruzi is a species of parasitic euglenoid trypanosomes. This species causes the trypanosomiasis diseases in humans and animals in America. Transmission occurs when the reduviid bug deposits feces on the skin surface and subsequently bites; the human host then scratches the bite area which facilitates penetration of the infected feces.



Life cycle

Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle starts in an animal reservoir. These reservoirs are usually mammals, wild or domestic, and include humans. A reduviid bug serves as the vector. While taking a blood meal it ingests T. cruzi. In the reduviid bug, they go into the epimastigote stage. This makes it possible to reproduce. After reproducing through mitosis, the epimastigotes move onto the rectal cell wall. There, they become infectious. Infectious T. cruzi are called trypomastigotes. Then, while the reduviid bug is taking a blood meal from a human, it defecates. The trypomastigotes are in the feces.
The trypomastigotes enter the human host through the bite wound or by crossing mucous membranes. When they enter a human cell, they become amastigotes. This is another reproductive stage. After reproducing through mitosis until a large amount of amastigotes are in a cell, pseudocysts are formed in infected cells. The amastigotes then turn back into trypomastigotes, and the cell bursts. The trypomastigotes swim along to either infect other cells or get sucked up by other reduviid bugs.

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