Breast cancer

Breast cancer is one of common malignancy in women and second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer, anatomically the breast is consist of nipple, areota, lactiferous sinus, lactiferous ducts and lactating lobular unit, breast cancer can be caused by hormonal or genetic factors, there are several types of breast cancer depending on site of origin and microscopic features, ex lobular carcinoma, invasive carcinoma, ductal carcinoma invasive ductal carcinoma and papillary carcinoma,



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Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast, called lobules that produce milk.In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast. Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type.



Genes -- Some people have genes that make them more prone to developing breast cancer. The most common gene defects are found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes normally produce proteins that protect you from cancer. But if a parent passes you a defective gene, you have an increased risk for breast cancer. Women with one of these defects have up to an 80% chance of getting breast cancer sometime during their life.


Symptoms
Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange Fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear-to-yellow, or green, and look like pus Men get breast cancer, too. Symptoms include breast lump and breast pain and tenderness.


Breast cancer can spread locally through the lymphatic system to draining lymph nodes nearby and distally through blood to the brain, liver, bone, and lung
Treatment
Breast cancer can be diagnosed by self-examination of the breast. Mammography and biopsy, Breast cancer can be treated by surgery, hormonal therapy and chemotherapy or some combination of these treatments.

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